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WHAT DOES COVARIATE MEAN IN ENGLISH?
In statistics, a covariate is a variable that is possibly predictive of the outcome under study. A covariate may be of direct interest or it may be a confounding or interacting variable. The alternative terms explanatory variable, independent variable, or predictor, are used in a regression analysis. In econometrics, the term "control variable" is usually used instead of "covariate". In a more specific usage, a covariate is a secondary variable that can affect the relationship between the dependent variable and other independent variables of primary interest. An example is provided by the analysis of trend in sea-level by Woodworth. Here the dependent variable was the annual mean sea level at a given location for which a series of yearly values were available. The primary independent variable was "time". Use was made of a "covariate" consisting of yearly values of annual mean atmospheric pressure at sea level. The results showed that inclusion of the covariate allowed improved estimates of the trend against time to be obtained, compared to analyses which omitted the covariate.
The translations of covariate from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «covariate» in English.
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «covariate».
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «COVARIATE» OVER TIME
The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «covariate» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «covariate» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about covariate
10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «COVARIATE»
Discover the use of covariate in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to covariate and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
Machine Learning in Non-stationary Environments: ...
With this book, they aim to encourage future research in machine learning, statistics, and engineering that strives to create truly autonomous learning machines able to learn under non-stationarity.
Masashi Sugiyama, Motoaki Kawanabe, 2012
Insurance Against Covariate Shocks: The Role of Index-based ...
Uninsured risk had far-reaching consequences for rural growth as well as poverty reduction.
Harold Alderman, Trina Haque, 2007
Selection Bias and Covariate Imbalances in Randomized ...
This book: Provides an overview of the hierarchy of study designs, and justifies the position of randomised trials at the top of this hierarchy.
Vance Berger, 2007
A partition model for treatment effects and treatment by ...
In studies with multiple treatment groups the null hypothesis of no treatment effect and each distinct alternative correspond to a partition of the treatments into clusters with equal means.
Susan Amy Alber, University of California, Los Angeles, 2006
A Guide to QTL Mapping with R/qtl
In the previous section, we considered additive covariates, in which case the
effect of the QTL was constant for all possible values of the covariate. The chief
advantage of the inclusion of additive covariates in the QTL analysis is to reduce
Karl W. Broman, Saunak Sen, 2009
Methods for the Analysis of Missing Covariate Data in ...
In individually matched case-control studies when some covariates are incomplete, analysis based on the complete data may result in a large loss of information because when the case or all the controls in a matched set have missing data, ...
Mulugeta Gebregziabher, 2006
Analysis of Messy Data: Analysis of Covariance
For example, if an experimental design involves three sizes of experimental units,
it is possible for a covariate to be measured on any of the three sizes of
experimental units. Thus, in the terminology of a split-split plot experiment, the
George A. Milliken, Dallas E. Johnson, 2001
Modeling Longitudinal Data: With 72 Figures
When the important treatment effect is the time by treatment interaction, this leads
naturally to three- way interactions of covariate by time by treatment. There are
two ways to investigate the question of how the covariate affects the treatment by
Robert E. Weiss, 2005
The Design of Experiments: Statistical Principles for ...
It is sometimes asserted that for a covariance analysis to be valid it is necessary
that the covariate be not affected by the experimental treatments. It will often be
true that the form of covariate makes it impossible for there to be systematic ...
R. Mead, 1990
Biostatistics for Animal...
Analysis of covariance is a term for a statistical procedure in which variability of a
dependent variable is explained by both categorical and continuous independent
variables. The continuous variable in the model is called a covariate. Common ...
Kaps, M., Lamberson, W.
10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «COVARIATE»
Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term covariate is used in the context of the following news items.
Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding …
To account for individual differences in background gene expression, rpS7 cDNA counts were included as a covariate in our statistical analyses ... «Nature.com, Jul 15»
Genetics of rapid eye movement sleep in humans
However, gender, as a covariate, had a significant effect on spectral power values (higher power values in δ, θ, β2 and ϕ bands or 1–7 Hz and ... «Nature.com, Jul 15»
Age, comorbidities increase infection risk in patients with RA treated …
Covariate data were collected, including age; BMI; methotrexate dose; comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... «Healio, Jul 15»
Synergistic activity of polarised osteoblasts inside condensations …
The alterations were found significantly different (p < 0.001) using a two-way ANOVA with time as covariate and the alterations as the group ... «Nature.com, Jul 15»
From relief to reconstruction
Given the scale of damage wrought by the quakes and the resultant covariate income shock on households in the region, it is unlikely that ... «E Kantipur, Jul 15»
Urinary tract stones and osteoporosis. Findings from the Women's …
However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident ... «UroToday, Jul 15»
Assessing the relative efficacy of new drugs: an emerging opportunity
For example, in a comparison of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation, the covariate profile suggested that the ROCKET-AF ... «Nature.com, Jul 15»
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... (CTQ) and used CTQ Total scores as a covariate in all regression analyses. Current levels of anxiety and dysphoria were assessed using the ... «Nature.com, Jun 15»
The extension of total gain (TG) statistic in survival models …
These statistics do not inform us about whether covariate information ... It increases as the effect of a covariate increases and can be applied to ... «7thSpace Interactive, Jun 15»
Appendix S5 - Estimated slopes +/- 1 SE of the linear regressions of each dependent variable regressed on the covariate included in the full ... «Am J Botany, Jun 15»
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