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WHAT DOES PROTOTHERIAN MEAN IN ENGLISH?
Prototheria is a taxonomic group, or taxon, to which the order Monotremata belongs. It is conventionally ranked as a subclass within the mammals. Most of the animals in this group are extinct. The egg-laying monotremes are known from fossils of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic periods; they are represented today by the platypus and several species of echidna. The names Prototheria, Metatheria and Eutheria refer to the three mammalian groupings which have living representatives. Each of the three may be defined as a total clade containing a living crown-group plus any fossil species which are more closely related to that crown-group than to any other living animals. The threefold division of living mammals into monotremes, marsupials and placentals was already well established when Thomas Huxley proposed the names Metatheria and Eutheria to incorporate the two latter groups in 1880. Initially treated as subclasses, Metatheria and Eutheria are by convention now grouped as...
Definition of prototherian in the English dictionary
The definition of prototherian in the dictionary is of, relating to, or belonging to the Prototheria, a subclass of mammals that includes the monotremes. Other definition of prototherian is any prototherian mammal; a monotreme.
The translations of prototherian from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «prototherian» in English.
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «prototherian».
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «PROTOTHERIAN» OVER TIME
The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «prototherian» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «prototherian» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about prototherian
10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «PROTOTHERIAN»
Discover the use of prototherian in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to prototherian and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
Revision of the Ektopodontidae (Mammalia, Marsupialia, ...
The prototherian monotremes and their Mesozoic relatives were thought to be
characterized by (1) evolution of closure of their expanding braincase by
development of anterior extensions of the petrosal (the alisphenoid remained
Michael O. Woodburne, William Alvin Clemens, 1986
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: ...
On the right is the main stem of evolution, from the Prototherian to the Eutherian
dentition. On the left, above, is the Paratherian (Edentate), and below, the
continued Metatherian branch. Main Stem. — I. Generalised Prototherian
Evolutionary Biology - Concepts, Molecular and Morphological ...
These egg-laying Monotremes are often regarded as representative of early
mammals with a more primitive prototherian lactation system. Genomics and
transcriptomics approaches have recently enable the molecular analysis of
Pierre Pontarotti, 2010
The Cambridge Natural History: Mammalia
opposed to the Prototherian mammals. Nevertheless it seems probablethatthe
Marsupial tribe is derived fromsome of the earliest Eutherians. Andon this view
may be explained the retention of Prototherian characters. The remaining
Frank Evers Beddard
As mentioned previously (see Fig. 5-16), extant prototherian lines are the
Australian and New Guinean monotremes, egg-laying mammals now
represented by the grub- and shrimp-eating platypus Figure 19-8 Proposed
skeletal and full-body ...
Brian K. Hall, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, 2011
Advances in Immunology
In addition to the five isotypes present in all mammals, a distinct isotype known as
IgO is found to be expressed in platypus, a prototherian mammal. Although IgO
represents a distinct Ig class in mammals, the gene encoding the ο-isotype is ...
Frederick W. Alt, 2011
Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics
MAMMAlIAn ACqUISITIOn Of GEnOMIC IMPRInTInG – fROM PROTOThERIAn
TO ThERIAn TO EUThERIAn The acquisition and evolution of genomic imprinting
is among the most fundamental genetic questions. Genomic imprinting is an ...
Trygve Tollefsbol, 2010
Neurobiology of Monotremes: Brain Evolution in Our Distant ...
both primitive pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons probably emerged as
discrete morphological entities very early in mammalian cortical evolution, either
at the time of divergence of the therian and prototherian lineages, or even earlier
Ken Ashwell, 2013
Life's Splendid Drama: Evolutionary Biology and the ...
A diagram given to illustrate his idea shows a series of parallel lines of evolution
passing through the three stages, which may be simplified as follows:
Prototherian stage Metatherian stage Eutherian stage F Monotremes >
Peter J. Bowler, 1996
Running Press Cyclopedia: The Ultimate Visual Reference Tool