A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc.
WHAT DOES X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY MEAN IN ENGLISH?
X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules—X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields. In its first decades of use, this method determined the size of atoms, the lengths and types of chemical bonds, and the atomic-scale differences among various materials, especially minerals and alloys. The method also revealed the structure and function of many biological molecules, including vitamins, drugs, proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA.
Definition of X-ray crystallography in the English dictionary
The definition of X-ray crystallography in the dictionary is the study and practice of determining the structure of a crystal by passing a beam of X-rays through it and observing and analysing the diffraction pattern produced.
The translations of X-ray crystallography from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «X-ray crystallography» in English.
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «X-ray crystallography».
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY» OVER TIME
The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «X-ray crystallography» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «X-ray crystallography» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about X-ray crystallography
10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»
Discover the use of X-ray crystallography in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to X-ray crystallography and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
An Introduction to X-rayCrystallography
A textbook for the student beginning a serious study of X-ray crystallography.
M. M. Woolfson, 1997
Structure Determination by X-RayCrystallography
This warmly received third edition is now available in an inexpensive softcover.
Marcus Frederick Charles Ladd, Rex Alfred Palmer, 2003
Principles of Protein X-RayCrystallography
In this new edition of his essential work, Dr. Jan Drenth, recognized internationally for his numerous contributions to crystallographic research, has provided an up-to-date and technically rigorous introduction to the subject.
Jan Drenth, 2007
X-RayCrystallography of Biomacromolecules: A Practical Guide
Written by one of the most significant contributors to the progress of protein crystallography, this practical guide contains case studies, a troubleshooting section and pointers on data interpretation.
Albrecht Messerschmidt, 2007
Early Days of X-rayCrystallography
This book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world.
André Authier, 2013
Understanding Single-Crystal X-RayCrystallography
This is the first textbook which examines and explains this method to users with only modest mathematical backgrounds and presents the theory and fundamentals in an easily comprehensible, self-contained way.
Dennis W. Bennett, 2010
X-PLOR: Version 3.1 : a System for X-rayCrystallography and NMR
X-PLOR is a highly sophisticated computer program that provides an interface between theoretical foundations and experimental data in structural biology, with specific emphasis on X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Axel T. Brünger, 1992
Computational Studies of Crystal Structure and Bonding, by Angelo Gavezzotti Cryo-Crystallography: Diffraction at Low Temperature and More, by Piero Macchi High-Pressure Crystallography, by Malcolm I. McMahon Chemical X-Ray Photodiffraction ...
Kari Rissanen, 2012
This well-balanced, and clearly written introduction to the subject features excellent illustrations and study questions throughout.
Gregory S. Girolami, 2011
Crystallography Made Crystal Clear: A Guide for Users of ...
This is the most comprehensive and concise reference for beginning Macromolecular crystallographers, written by a leading expert in the field.
Gale Rhodes, 2010
10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY»
Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term X-ray crystallography is used in the context of the following news items.
Crystalline sponge method strikes again
X-ray crystallography is uniquely placed to determine molecular structure, providing users with an electron density map and hence an image of their compound. «Royal Society of Chemistry, May 15»
Kaus Investigates Protein Structure by Using X-Ray Crystallography
X-ray crystallography involves obtaining protein molecules in a crystalline form ... an Xray beam is diffracted by the atoms that make up these protein crystals, ... «Wesleyan Connection, Mar 15»
New 2-color X-ray laser technique could reveal atomic detail of …
X-ray crystallography has revealed the structures of more than 100,000 proteins since it came into use at synchrotron X-ray facilities decades ago. «Phys.Org, Mar 15»
Acoustic tweezers device expands the range of X-ray crystallography
"X-ray crystallography has the capability to characterize the atomic-level details of molecules and complex structures. It enables discoveries in virtually all fields ... «Phys.Org, Feb 15»
Acoustic Tweezers Device Expands the Range of X-ray …
“X-ray crystallography has the capability to characterize the atomic-level details of molecules and complex structures. It enables discoveries in virtually all fields ... «Newswise, Feb 15»
MSU to organize national workshop on X-Ray crystallography
VADODARA: The Department of Chemistry of M S University's Faculty of Science is going to organize a national workshop on X-Ray crystallography from ... «Times of India, Jan 15»
The centenary of the discovery of x-ray crystallography
It did so because x-ray crystallography is 100 years old this year and yet remains relatively unknown to the general public — despite being essential to many ... «The Pharmaceutical Journal, Dec 14»
New Macromolecular Femtosecond X-ray Crystallography at SLAC …
The new station, called MFX for Macromolecular Femtosecond (X-ray) Crystallography, will primarily focus on solving the 3-D structures of hard-to-study proteins ... «AZoNano.com, Nov 14»
X-ray crystallography photos capture amazing structures in objects
Photographer Max Alexander had shed light on some of the shapes of substances created by a technique known as x-ray crystallography. Pictured here is the ... «Daily Mail, Nov 14»
Google honors Dorothy Hodgkin's X-ray vision
The science of X-ray crystallography began in April 1912, when the German physicist Max Laue and his colleagues placed a copper sulfate crystal between an ... «Christian Science Monitor, May 14»
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