A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc.
WHAT DOES SUPERINFECTION MEAN IN ENGLISH?
A superinfection is generally defined as a second infection superimposed on an earlier one, especially by a different microbial agent of exogenous or endogenous origin, that is resistant to the treatment used against the first infection. An example of this in bacteriology is the overgrowth of endogenous Clostridium difficile which occurs following treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. In virology, the definition is slightly different. Superinfection is the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time. Viral superinfections may be resistant to the antiviral drug or drugs that were being used to treat the original infection. Viral superinfectons may also be less susceptible to the host's immune response.
The translations of superinfection from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «superinfection» in English.
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «superinfection».
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «SUPERINFECTION» OVER TIME
The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «superinfection» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «superinfection» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about superinfection
10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «SUPERINFECTION»
Discover the use of superinfection in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to superinfection and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
The Antimicrobial Drugs
Diarrhea can also result from superinfection of the bowel. SUPERINFECTION.
Because they are broad- spectrum antibiotics, therapy with tetracyclines is
associated with a higher incidence of superinfection than therapy with many
Eric Michael Scholar, William B. Pratt, 2000
Mechanisms of Entry and Superinfection of Equine Infectious ...
Superinfection Superinfection is a term used to describe an event in which a cell
that has been infected with a virus becomes re-infected with the same or similar
virus. Retroviral superinfection can be damaging both to the virus and the host.
Melinda Ann Brindley, 2007
Roach's Introductory Clinical Pharmacology
Superinfections A superinfection can develop rapidly and is potentially serious
and even life-threatening. Bacterial superinfections are seen with administration
of the oral penicillins and occur in the bowel. Symptoms of bacterial
Susan M. Ford, Sally S. Roach, 2010
and why the Positive Partners Study, which followed individuals who had been
infected for a long time, showed no cases of superinfection. How long such a
period might be is not known. As Grant explains, animal studies conducted to
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH: ...
CD4-Mediated Resistance to HIV Superinfection. One of the major characteristics
of HIV-infected cells is the down- modulation of the CD4 receptor (215–217). To
date, three viral HIV proteins, Vpu, Env, and Nef, have been identified that ...
Anthony S. Fauci, Vassil St. Georgiev, 2009
Liver Disease in Children
SEROLOGIC DIFFERENTIATION OF ACUTE HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV),
ACUTE AND CHRONIC DELTA HEPATITIS (HDV), AND HDV
SUPERINFECTION OF AN HBV CARRIER 9033 nuc/eolictes (30 1 f amirco acids
) FIGURE 17.6.
Frederick J. Suchy, Ronald J. Sokol, William F. Balistreri, 2001
Cytomegaloviruses: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Intervention
that superinfection has become accepted as a general and relatively common
occurrence in humans. Early experimental studies of superinfection in humans
were performed as a component ofvaccine trials (Quinnan et al., 1984). However
Matthias J Reddehase, 2013
Bacterial Episomes and Plasmids
take place between f i + and f i ' R factors in their superinfection by conjugation.
This process of mutual exclusion was later found to occur too infrequently to
explain the mechanism of superinfection immunity. We have recently discovered
CIBA Foundation Symposium, 2009
Encyclopedia of Microbiology
Subsequent adsorbers of otherwise successful primary infections are termed '
secondary' and may have their genome uptake blocked by superinfection
exclusion expressed by the primary phage. Coinfection results when secondary
Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Canadian Medical-surgical ...
Superinfection may occur with the administration of very large doses of antibiotics
, such as penicillin, or with combinations of antibiotics. Superinfection may also
occur in the patient who has been receiving numerous courses and types of ...
Pauline Paul, Beverly Williams, 2009
10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «SUPERINFECTION»
Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term superinfection is used in the context of the following news items.
HIV/AIDS Vaccine Progress: Potency Of Neutralizing Antibodies …
... also known as superinfection (SI) - and determined whether this could lead to a more potent Nabs response necessary to design stronger HIV/AIDS vaccines. «iSchoolGuide, Jul 15»
Towards an HIV vaccine
One shows what type of Nab "repertoire" can be generated following superinfection, and the second one examines the efficacy of Nabs in blocking direct ... «Medical Xpress, Jul 15»
Good News at Fred Hutch
Dr. Rainer Storb receives $12.9M to study blood stem-cell therapies for immune deficiencies; Dr. Julie Overbaugh studies HIV 'superinfection' to provide clues ... «Fred Hutch News Service, Jul 15»
Medical mystery: The infection that would not stop
In addition to TEN and the fungal superinfection, she was further diagnosed with a rare and devastating condition called purpura fulminans. It takes its name ... «Philly.com, Jul 15»
When Is It OK for 2 HIV-Positive People to Have Condomless Sex …
A friend of mine said that we should stop having unprotected sex because we may [acquire HIV superinfection and it'll be hard to find] a drug that will keep our ... «TheBody.com, May 15»
Early Function of the Abutilon Mosaic Virus AC2 Gene as a …
Their replicational release upon AbMV superinfection or the individual and combined expression of epitope-tagged AbMV AC1, AC2, and AC3 was studied. «Journal of Virology, Mar 15»
HIV Transmission Rates Show First Infections Matter For Spread Of …
A person infected with the first HIV strain, the researchers demonstrated, are resilient to superinfection from a second strain. Because each infected person ... «Medical Daily, Feb 15»
... poses is a threat to otherwise harmless or beneficial bacteria that reside in our body, leading to 'superinfection'. But in many parts of the world, including Nepal ... «E Kantipur, Jan 15»
Abstract and Introduction
At our first observation, the patient was asthenic, with severe pain and functional limitations. There was also a superinfection due to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa ... «Medscape, Oct 14»
Superinfection impacts laboratory, not clinical measures of HIV …
Previous observations that increased viral diversity is linked to more rapid disease progression and that superinfection may increase a patient's steady state viral ... «Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News, Sep 14»
« EDUCALINGO. Superinfection [online]. Available <https://educalingo.com/en/dic-en/superinfection>. Oct 2021 ».