A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc.
WHAT DOES X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEAN IN ENGLISH?
X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a crystallographer can produce a three-dimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be determined, as well as their chemical bonds, their disorder and various other information. Since many materials can form crystals—such as salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules—X-ray crystallography has been fundamental in the development of many scientific fields. In its first decades of use, this method determined the size of atoms, the lengths and types of chemical bonds, and the atomic-scale differences among various materials, especially minerals and alloys. The method also revealed the structure and function of many biological molecules, including vitamins, drugs, proteins and nucleic acids such as DNA.
The translations of X-ray diffraction from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «X-ray diffraction» in English.
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «X-ray diffraction».
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «X-RAY DIFFRACTION» OVER TIME
The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «X-ray diffraction» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «X-ray diffraction» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about X-ray diffraction
10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «X-RAY DIFFRACTION»
Discover the use of X-ray diffraction in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to X-ray diffraction and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
X-RayDiffraction: A Practical Approach
Theoretical texts of x-rays diffraction often frustrates beginners. After plowing through thick jargon, they may have little understanding of how to record an x-ray diffraction pattern and how to derive useful information from it.
C. Suryanarayana, M. Grant Norton, 1998
X-rayDiffraction in Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and ...
Exploration of fundamentals of x-ray diffraction theory using Fourier transforms applies general results to various atomic structures, amorphous bodies, crystals, and imperfect crystals. 154 illustrations. 1963 edition.
André Guinier, 1994
Industrial Applications of X-RayDiffraction
By illustrating a wide range of specific applications in all major industries, this work broadens the coverage of X-ray diffraction beyond basic tenets, research and academic principles.
X-rayDiffraction and the Identification and Analysis of ...
This new edition pays particular attention to integrating the mineralogy of soils and features a new chapter on disorder and polytypes.
Duane Milton Moore, Robert C. Reynolds, 1997
Theory of X-RayDiffraction in Crystals
This classic by one of the great figures in x-ray structure analysis provides a vigorous mathematical treatment of its subject.
William H. Zachariasen, 2004
B. E. Warren. repeating volume is completely expressed by the distribution in one
octant. There is additional symmetry across certain diagonal planes. 1n terms of
coordinates hi and h3 for point A, the coordinates of point A' are h[ = 2 — h3 ...
B. E. Warren, 2012
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two ...
B. B. He, 2011
X-RayDiffraction by Polycrystalline Materials
This book presents a physical approach to the diffraction phenomenon and its applications in materials science.
René Guinebretière, 2010
X-RayDiffraction by Macromolecules
This book is divided into three parts: fundamental, experimental and analytical, and the volume as a whole is intended as an intermediate textbook to bridge the gap between primers and specialist works.
Nobutami Kasai, M. Kakudo, 2010
10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «X-RAY DIFFRACTION»
Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term X-ray diffraction is used in the context of the following news items.
X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for Mineral Processing: An Interview with …
Todd Houlahan, Director of the International Mining Group at Olympus Scientific Solutions, speaks to AZoMining about the use of x-ray diffraction in mineral ... «Azomining, Jul 15»
Surface Analysis Market by Instrumentation Technology (Microscopy …
Based on instrumentation technology, the market is segmented into microscopy, spectroscopy, surface analyzers, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microscopy ... «PR Newswire, Jul 15»
Agilents X-Ray Diffraction Unit to be Acquired by Rigaku
Per the deal, Agilent will sell its X-ray diffraction (XRD) business to Rigaku. ... The XRD unit manufactures single-crystal X-ray instruments for the global chemical ... «Zacks.com, Mar 15»
3-D image of a virus plotted using X-ray Diffraction
Cleverly bypassing the tedious procedure of crystallizing individual particles, the researchers targeted the virus (Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus) with ... «Science 2.0, Mar 15»
Virus mapped in 3D using X-ray pulses
Scientists have used X-ray diffraction to image live cells, viruses and simple nanostructures in 2D using a technique called nanocrystallography. This involves ... «physicsworld.com, Mar 15»
Journal Highlight: L-Lysine: Exploiting powder X-ray diffraction to …
Journal Highlight: L-Lysine: Exploiting powder X-ray diffraction to complete the set of crystal structures of the 20 directly encoded proteinogenic amino acids. «spectroscopyNOW.com, Feb 15»