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Although each egg cell produced by a woman carries a single X chromosome, the sperm cells produced by a man carry either an X or a Y. This means, in very simple terms, that the sperm cell determines a baby's sex.
Kenneth R. Miller

Meaning of "chromosome" in the English dictionary

Dictionary
DICTIONARY
section

PRONUNCIATION OF CHROMOSOME

chromosome  [ˈkrəʊməˌsəʊm] play
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GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF CHROMOSOME

noun
adjective
verb
adverb
pronoun
preposition
conjunction
determiner
exclamation
Chromosome is a noun.
A noun is a type of word the meaning of which determines reality. Nouns provide the names for all things: people, objects, sensations, feelings, etc.

WHAT DOES CHROMOSOME MEAN IN ENGLISH?

Chromosome

A chromosome is a structure of DNA, protein, and RNA found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. Chromosomal DNA encodes most or all of an organism's genetic information; some species also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal genetic elements. Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms. The DNA molecule may be circular or linear, and can be composed of 100,000 to over 3,750,000,000 nucleotides in a long chain. Typically, eukaryotic cells have large linear chromosomes and prokaryotic cells have smaller circular chromosomes, although there are many exceptions to this rule. Cells may contain more than one type of chromosome; for example, mitochondria in most eukaryotes and chloroplasts in plants have their own small chromosomes. In eukaryotes, nuclear chromosomes are packaged by proteins into a condensed structure called chromatin. This allows the very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus. The structure of chromosomes and chromatin varies through the cell cycle.

WORDS THAT RHYME WITH CHROMOSOME


acrosome
ˈækrəˌsəʊm
autosome
ˈɔːtəˌsəʊm
centrosome
ˈsɛntrəˌsəʊm
chondriosome
ˈkɒndrɪəˌsəʊm
desmosome
ˈdɛsməˌsəʊm
dictyosome
ˈdɪktɪəˌsəʊm
elaiosome
ɪˈleɪəˌsəʊm
heterochromosome
ˌhɛtərəʊˈkrəʊməˌsəʊm
hydrosome
ˈhaɪdrəˌsəʊm
isochromosome
ˌaɪsəʊˈkrəʊməˌsəʊm
lysosome
ˈlaɪsəˌsəʊm
mesosome
ˈmɛsəˌsəʊm
monosome
ˈmɒnəˌsəʊm
nucleosome
ˈnjuːklɪəˌsəʊm
plasmosome
ˈplæzməˌsəʊm
polyribosome
ˌpɒlɪˈraɪbəˌsəʊm
ribosome
ˈraɪbəˌsəʊm
schistosome
ˈʃɪstəˌsəʊm
synaptosome
sɪˈnæptəˌsəʊm
trypanosome
ˈtrɪpənəˌsəʊm

WORDS THAT BEGIN LIKE CHROMOSOME

chromophilic
chromophobe
chromophore
chromophoric
chromophorous
chromoplast
chromoprotein
chromoscope
chromosomal
chromosomally
chromosome band
chromosome map
chromosome mapping
chromosome number
chromosphere
chromospheric
chromotherapy
chromotype
chromous
chromoxylograph

WORDS THAT END LIKE CHROMOSOME

amplosome
awesome
cytosome
endosome
exposome
gonosome
karyosome
kinetosome
liposome
melanosome
merosome
microsome
phagosome
pyrosome
sarcosome
sex chromosome
twosome
urosome
X chromosome
X-chromosome
Y-chromosome

Synonyms and antonyms of chromosome in the English dictionary of synonyms

SYNONYMS

Translation of «chromosome» into 25 languages

TRANSLATOR
online translator

TRANSLATION OF CHROMOSOME

Find out the translation of chromosome to 25 languages with our English multilingual translator.
The translations of chromosome from English to other languages presented in this section have been obtained through automatic statistical translation; where the essential translation unit is the word «chromosome» in English.

Translator English - Chinese

染色体
1,325 millions of speakers

Translator English - Spanish

cromosoma
570 millions of speakers

English

chromosome
510 millions of speakers

Translator English - Hindi

गुणसूत्र
380 millions of speakers
ar

Translator English - Arabic

كروموسوم
280 millions of speakers

Translator English - Russian

хромосома
278 millions of speakers

Translator English - Portuguese

cromossomo
270 millions of speakers

Translator English - Bengali

তন্তুসদৃশ বস্তু
260 millions of speakers

Translator English - French

chromosome
220 millions of speakers

Translator English - Malay

Kromosom
190 millions of speakers

Translator English - German

Chromosom
180 millions of speakers

Translator English - Japanese

染色体
130 millions of speakers

Translator English - Korean

염색체
85 millions of speakers

Translator English - Javanese

Kromosom
85 millions of speakers
vi

Translator English - Vietnamese

nhiễm sắc thể
80 millions of speakers

Translator English - Tamil

குரோமோசோம்
75 millions of speakers

Translator English - Marathi

गुणसूत्र
75 millions of speakers

Translator English - Turkish

kromozom
70 millions of speakers

Translator English - Italian

cromosoma
65 millions of speakers

Translator English - Polish

chromosom
50 millions of speakers

Translator English - Ukrainian

хромосома
40 millions of speakers

Translator English - Romanian

cromozom
30 millions of speakers
el

Translator English - Greek

χρωμόσωμα
15 millions of speakers
af

Translator English - Afrikaans

chromosome
14 millions of speakers
sv

Translator English - Swedish

kromosom
10 millions of speakers
no

Translator English - Norwegian

kromosom
5 millions of speakers

Trends of use of chromosome

TRENDS

TENDENCIES OF USE OF THE TERM «CHROMOSOME»

The term «chromosome» is quite widely used and occupies the 24.180 position in our list of most widely used terms in the English dictionary.
0
100%
FREQUENCY
Quite widely used
89
/100
The map shown above gives the frequency of use of the term «chromosome» in the different countries.
Principal search tendencies and common uses of chromosome
List of principal searches undertaken by users to access our English online dictionary and most widely used expressions with the word «chromosome».

FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM «CHROMOSOME» OVER TIME

The graph expresses the annual evolution of the frequency of use of the word «chromosome» during the past 500 years. Its implementation is based on analysing how often the term «chromosome» appears in digitalised printed sources in English between the year 1500 and the present day.

Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about chromosome

EXAMPLES

4 QUOTES WITH «CHROMOSOME»

Famous quotes and sentences with the word chromosome.
1
Kenneth R. Miller
Although each egg cell produced by a woman carries a single X chromosome, the sperm cells produced by a man carry either an X or a Y. This means, in very simple terms, that the sperm cell determines a baby's sex.
2
Thomas Hunt Morgan
For each chromosome contributed by the sperm there is a corresponding chromosome contributed by the egg, there are two chromosomes of each kind, which together constitute a pair.
3
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard
In mathematics and science, there is no difference in the intelligence of men and women. The difference in genes between men and women is simply the Y chromosome, which has nothing to do with intelligence.
4
Jack W. Szostak
What do cells do when they see a broken piece of DNA? Cells don't like such breaks. They'll do pretty much anything they can to fix things up. If a chromosome is broken, the cells will repair the break using an intact chromosome.

10 ENGLISH BOOKS RELATING TO «CHROMOSOME»

Discover the use of chromosome in the following bibliographical selection. Books relating to chromosome and brief extracts from same to provide context of its use in English literature.
1
Chromosome 6
The mutilated body of a notorious underworld figure leads forensic pathologist Dr. Jack Stapleton to a mysterious group in Africa that uses state-of-the-art medical technology for sinister purposes. Reissue.
Robin Cook, 1998
2
Catalogue of Unbalanced Chromosome Aberrations in Man
This text presents a comprehensive and updated catalogue of the already large, and rapidly growing number of chromosome aberrations in man. The consistent structure of the text and references provide for rapid orientation.
Albert Schinzel, 2001
3
Atlas of Human Chromosome Heteromorphisms
One key diagnostic consequence of the inability to distinguish a “normal” variation in chromosome structure from a pathologic change is a missed or inaccurate diagnosis. Clinical cytogeneticists have not, however, been idle.
H.E. Wyandt, Vijay S. Tonk, 2003
4
Chromosome Abnormalities and Genetic Counseling
This new edition of Chromosome Abnormalities in Genetic Counseling offers a practical, up-to-date guide for the genetic counselor to marshal cytogenetic data and analysis clearly and effectively to families.
R.J. MKinlay Gardner, Grant R Sutherland, Lisa G. Shaffer, 2011
5
The Calcutta Chromosome
In this extraordinary novel, Amitav Ghosh navigates through time and genres to present a unique tale.
Amitav Ghosh, 2011
6
Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop ...
Summarizing landmark research, Volume 3 of this essential series furnishes information on the availability of germplasm resources that breeders can exploit for producing high-yielding vegetable crop varieties.
Ram J. Singh, 2006
7
Chromosome Abnormalities and Genetic Counseling
This third edition has been thorougly updated, and is richly illustrated and fully referenced. New chapters have been written on preimplantation diagnosis and on reproductive risks due to environmental agents.
Genetic Health Services Victoria Royal Children's Hospital R. J. McKinlay Gardner Consultant Geneticist, Melbourne, Department of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Women's and Children's Hospital Adelaide (Retired) Grant R. Sutherland Director, 2003
8
Human Chromosome Variation: Heteromorphism and Polymorphism: ...
This updated edition features concise background information on chromosome methods and applications, essential information on heteromorphism frequencies in normal and clinical populations as well as new listing and discussions of ...
Herman Edwin Wyandt, Vijay S. Tonk, 2011
9
Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution
This two-volume work surveys the entire range of general aspects of chromosome research on plants. This first volume is divided into two sections.
P.K. Gupta, T. Tsuchiya, 1991
10
Chromosome biology
This is true in the plant arena, and it is becoming increasingly true in animal studies, where chromosomes are more difficult to work with.
R. Appels, 1998

10 NEWS ITEMS WHICH INCLUDE THE TERM «CHROMOSOME»

Find out what the national and international press are talking about and how the term chromosome is used in the context of the following news items.
1
A checkpoint enzyme for flawless cell division
Mitotic spindle apparatus preparing for chromosome segregation: an unaligned chromosome activates the checkpoint (green) and thereby ... «Phys.Org, Jul 15»
2
Microspore culture reveals complex meiotic behaviour in a …
Presence of chromosome A6 was positively correlated with self-pollinated seed set and pollen viability in the MD population. Many MD progeny ... «BMC Blogs Network, Jul 15»
3
Italian scientists map the genomes of two donkeys
Regions with low divergence between the horse and donkey were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome ... «Horsetalk, Jul 15»
4
Lizards in Australia are actually changing their gender because of …
The study's authors say the lizards' sexes are changing so much the female sex chromosome sometimes disappears completely, the ... «Las Vegas Review-Journal, Jul 15»
5
Drug combo shows promise against rare bone cancer
The most common mutation that causes Ewing sarcoma involves two genes - the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 and the FLI1 gene on ... «Medical News Today, Jul 15»
6
A historical look at why men died earlier than women
"There's intrinsic sex differences in biological vulnerability that have nothing to do with culture, they are which sex chromosome you inherited at ... «CBS News, Jul 15»
7
Geneticists create simpler, cheaper test to determine baby's gender
"The absence of the Y-chromosome is what makes a woman,” Toropovsky said. “If the Y-chromosome is found in the blood, the expectant ... «Russia Beyond the Headlines, Jul 15»
8
World Cup's 'Gender Testing' Is Sexist And Would Never Happen to …
You can't look at chromosomes, either, since sometimes women will have a Y chromosome and sometimes men have two Xs. And then there's ... «SheWired, Jul 15»
9
Short chromosome caps may up autism risk in families
Fathers of children with autism also appear to have shortened chromosome caps, though this difference is not statistically significant. «SFARI News, Jul 15»
10
5 Facts That Might Surprise You About Gender
SOX9 is not located on the Y chromosome and is the key to why Mario is male. Mario had inherited a rare mutation that altered the regulation of ... «Discovery News, Jul 15»

REFERENCE
« EDUCALINGO. Chromosome [online]. Available <https://educalingo.com/en/dic-en/chromosome>. Mar 2024 ».
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